American seamen have three avenues of recovery against a shipowner in respect of injuries sustained on board a ship: maintenance and cure; the Jones Act; a claim of unseaworthiness.
Punitive damages are available for the first of these, but not the second. The position as regards unseaworthiness was, until recently, unclear with a Circuit split on the issue. This has now been resolved by the Supreme Court’s decision in Dutra Group v Batterton ,588- U.S.. ____ RED Large RED Large Dog Leash Large Dog Explosion-Proof gold Wool Chest Strap Dog Leash Dog Chain (color RED, Size L)Red Large Red Large Dog-Assisted Belt with Handle Dog Hind Leg Disabled Power Repair Harness Limb Weakness Young Senior,Red,L(2019) , to the effect that punitive damages are not recoverable. The overwhelming historical evidence was against such damages being available in an action for unseaworthiness. A novel remedy could not be sanctioned unless it is required to maintain uniformity with Congress’s clearly expressed policies, Red Large Red Large High Back Bow Pet Princess Bed Oval Pet Princess NestRed Large Red Large Luxury Cozy Cave Large Redparticularly those in the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (Jones Act), under which only compensatory damages were recoverable.Red Large Red Large Pawsitive Pet Reflective Nylon Martingale Collar Premium Nylon Adjustable Training Collar for Dogs We Donate a Collar for Every Collar Sold.Red Large Red Large Pet nest Oxford cloth PP cotton soft suitable for cats, dogs, small animals, etc. (color RED, Size L).
To allow punitive damages on unseaworthiness claims would create bizarre disparities in the law. First, a mariner could make a claim for punitive damages if he was injured onboard a ship, but his estate would lose the right to seek punitivedamages in a wrongful death action if he died from his injuries. Red Large Red Large Puppy Dog Waterproof Motorcycle Clothing Printing Thick Warm Breathable Pet Autumn and Winter Casual Jacket Autumn and Winter,2 colors,5 Sizes,Red-LRED Large RED Large Square Non-Stick Hair Resistant to Bite Slip Haiming (color RED, Size L)Second, because unseaworthiness claims run against the owner of the vessel, the owner could be liable for punitive damages while the ship’s master or operator—who could be more culpable—would not be liable for such damages under the Jones Act. Red Large Red Large YQQ Pet Bed Kennel Cat Nest Sleeping Pad Washable Nylon PP Cotton Four Seasons (color RED, Size L)Red Large 30-Inch Red Large 30-Inch VirChewLy Indestructible Traffic Lead for Dogs, 30 , Large, RedThird, allowing punitive damages would place American shippers at a significant competitive disadvantage and discourage foreign-owned vessels from employing American seamen