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American seamen have three avenues of recovery against a shipowner in respect of injuries sustained on board a ship: maintenance and cure; the Jones Act; a claim of unseaworthiness.

Punitive damages are available for the first of these, but not the second. The position as regards unseaworthiness was, until recently, unclear with a Circuit split on the issue. This has now been resolved by the Supreme Court’s decision in Dutra Group v Batterton ,588- U.S.. ____ 10 Panels with Canopy 48 inch 10 Panels with Canopy 48 inch LEMKA Heavy Duty Dog Playpen Dog Kennel Pet Dog Exercise Playpen Foldable Dog Steel Crate Wire Metal Cage 10 Panels with Canopy 48 inchesCat Climbing Frame Four Seasons Rattan Suede Positive and Negative Dual-Use Cat Climbing Frame General Hemp Prop Cat Tree Cat Scratch Board Cat Litter Cat Jumping Platform(2019) , to the effect that punitive damages are not recoverable. The  overwhelming historical evidence was against such damages being available in an action for unseaworthiness. A  novel remedy could not be sanctioned unless it is re­quired to maintain uniformity with Congress’s clearly expressed poli­cies, Hexiansheng Cat Climb Trees Sisal Cat Toy Cat Scratch Board cat Table Shu Cotton Velvet 40 33.5 64cmMedium CafePress My Mommy Is A Nurse Dog T-Shirt Dog T-Shirt, Pet Clothing, Funny Dog Costumeparticularly those in the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (Jones Act), under which only compensatory damages were recoverable.4 x 20KG BALE Emerald Green Feeds 80KG Horse Food Grass Pellets and Tigerbox Anti-Bacterial Pen.Kess InHouse Sylvia Cook Starbright Fleece Dog Bed, 50 by 60 , Holiday.

To allow punitive damages on unseaworthiness claims would create bizarre disparities in the law. First, a mariner could make a claim for punitive damages if he was injured onboard a ship, but his estate would lose the right to seek punitivedamages in a wrongful death action if he died from his injuries. Brown M Brown M Soft and Comfortable Fully Removable and Washable Cute Cartoon nest Four Seasons Suede Small Dog Dog House Autumn and Winter Warm Day Teddy pet Thickening Cat Toilet Soft and ComfortableHealthy ABS Pet Dog Cat Interactive Slow Food Feeder Anti Choke Dog Dishes Funny redatable Pet Cat Dog Anti Slip Pet Bowl (Green)Second, because unseaworthi­ness claims run against the owner of the vessel, the owner could be liable for punitive damages while the ship’s master or operator—who could be more culpable—would not be liable for such damages under the Jones Act. Black Genuine Leather Cage Basket Secure Dog Muzzle for redtweiler (Circumference 14.7 Snout Length 3.5)A WN Pet Bag Cat Capsule Pet Out Travel Suitcase Cat Cage Portable Out Bag Car Net Red Cat Box 10kg Pets pet Carrier (color A)Third, allowing punitive damages would place Amer­ican shippers at a significant competitive disadvantage and discour­age foreign-owned vessels from employing American seamen

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It’s not often that we can say “You read it first on the IISTL blog.” But it seems we may be able to, following the decision of the Court of Appeal (Males, Rose and Haddon-Cave L.JJ.) in Forever Crystal OMG Cartoon Cat Pet Memorial Magnet.

The facts briefly recap thus. A charterer signed a CoA promising to come up with vast cargoes of Brazilian iron ore that would have netted the shipowner profits of something like $20 million. It didn’t, and in hindsight it was abundantly clear that it it never could have. Kess InHouse CarolLynn TICE Grey Accent Pet Bowl, 7-Inch, Dark NeutralMedium Casual Canine Polyester Hot Diggity Dog Costume, Medium, MustardThe contract was subject to a force majeure clause including floods preventing performance. Floods duly materialised; but (as was held both at first instance and on appeal) the charterer couldn’t invoke the clause, since if it had never had any cargoes in the first place the floods hadn’t prevented it doing anything. Nevertheless Teare J Buckle-Down Gummy Bears Stacked Multi color Martingale Dog Collar, 1 Wide-Fits 9-15 Neck-Small B S(60X52X20CM) B S(60X52X20CM) GZDXHN Dog House Mat Washable Soft Cashmere Pet Nest Teddy Dog Nest Pet Supplies,S(60X52X20Cm),BKess InHouse Maynard Logan Tunnel Fleece Dog Bed, 50 by 60 , Multicolorthat even though there was breach the damages were not $20 million, but zilch (or rather nominal). His argument was that, hindsight having shown that the shipowner wouldn’t have had a right to performance even if the cargoes had been there, the value of the lost rights was zero.

We raised an eyebrow here at the idea that a defendant who hadn’t, and never could have, performed should be able to cut damages from $20 million to zero by pointing to a force majeure clause that might have protected him but in fact didn’t. bluee 38x38x38cm bluee 38x38x38cm LZY pet bed- Winter Warm Cubic Winter Cat Supplies Closed Small Pet Nest (color Dark bluee, Size 38x38x38cm)Earthbath Mediterranean Magic Totally Natural Pet Shampoo, 1-GallonThe Court of Appeal has now made it clear that it thinks the same way, and substituted an award of $20 million. If (it was said) a claimant showed that a defendant had failed to perform and the defendant could not invoke any exculpatory provision, there was no reason why damages should not be substantial. The reasons behind the non-performance were irrelevant,Acrylic Aquarium Aquarium Medium Cylindrical Living Room Falling Straight Aquarium Vase Fish tank, 30x30x80cmDaqin Smart Door Video Doorbell Cat Eye Youth Edition App Control Rechargeable IPS Display Wide Angle as was the fact that had the defendant been able to perform in the first place he would have had an excuse.

In our view, despite the beguiling advocacy of the Institute’s own Simon Rainey QC, this is sensible and logical. Males LJ hit the nail on the head at [89] when he pithily pointed out that the breach was not inability or unwillingness to supply cargoes, but the simple fact that the cargoes, for whatever reason, were not there. Put that way, everything neatly falls into place. If you don’t perform your contract and can’t point to any excuse, you are liable for substantial damages. End of story.

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Last year we reported on two judicial review challenges to government policy on climate change, one in the Netherlands, the other in the UK.

The Netherlands challenge brought by Urgenda resulted in an order that that the Netherlands State be ordered to achieve a reduction so that the cumulative volume of Netherlands greenhouse gas emissions would be reduced at least by 25%, by the end of 2020, relative to 1990 levels. The Netherlands State appealed against the order and the Dutch Supreme Court heard the case on 24 May 2019 and a judgment is expected over the summer.

The UK challenge was brought by Plan B and sought judicial review of the UK government’s decision not to amend the 2050 target in the Climate Change Act 2008 in the light of article 2(1) (a) the 2015 Paris Agreement on Climate Change, which the UK has ratified, Johnston & Jeff Dried Mealworms 12.5kgthe parties commit to:Fern Villa Collection Small Round Pet Dog BedJia He Pet Stairs Folding car Dog Ladder Ladder car with Slope Assisted Off The Stairs pet Supplies pet Ladder @@ “Holding the increase in the global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels, recognising that this would significantly reduce the risks and impacts of climate change.” The challenge failed and leave to appeal was rejected earlier this year.KCare The Nightmare Before Christmas Sally Dog Toy Stocking Includes 8 ToysMauk Filter XL Black, 50.5 x 41.5 x 11.5 cm, 1906

Since then the UK Committee on Climate Change, in line with the findings of the IPCC in October 2018, has recommended a new emissions target for the UK of net-zero greenhouse gases by 2050. The previous target was to ensure that the net UK carbon account for the year 2050 (“the 2050 target”) is at least 80% lower than the 1990 baseline. This week a statutory instrument, the Climate Change Act 2008 (2050 Target Amendment) Order 2019, Cherry Finish 40 Cubic Inches Cherry Finish 40 Cubic Inches Near & Dear Pet Memorials MDF Pet Photo Cremation Urn, 40 Cubic Inch, Cherry FinishDIYthinker Landmarks in South Korea Anti-Slip Floor Pet Mat Square Home Kitchen Door 80Cm Giftwas laid amending the Climate Change Act 2008 so that ‘80%’ is replaced by ‘100%’.Leopard Size 10 Leopard Size 10 Evans Collars 3 4 Shaped Collar, Size 10, Animal Prints, LeopardLoses Magnetventil Hiwi CO2 System 1500 Profi.

This is a ‘net’ figure, which allows for the ability to use international carbon credits to offset emissions within an appropriate monitoring, reporting and verification framework. In addition, under s.30(1) of the Act emissions from international aviation and shipping do not count as emissions from sources in the UK. BUNNY BUSINESS The Grove Double Decker Rabbit Guinea Pig Hutch and Run with Cover, BrownThe Government have said that they will review the ‘net zero’ target within 5 years to check that other countries are following suit, and, if not, reserve the right to revert to the original 80% target.

To stabilise at 1.5 degrees over pre industrial levels by 2100 the IPCC has stated that levels of CO2 in the atmosphere should not exceed 430 parts per million, and for stabilising at 2 degrees the levels should not exceed 450 per million. Cat Bowl Ceramic Cat Food Bowl Double Bowl Bevel Neck Anti-flip Wooden Pet Table Dish Rack Dog BowlG198438A Sala-Tecco Pet Accessories Hair Thinning Shears Professional Pet Dog Grooming Scissors Set Straight&Curved&Thinning Shears Kit1400 Aqua One Ocellaris 1400 Canister FilterLast month a reading at a weather station in Hawaii recorded 415 parts per million of CO2 in the atmosphere. The current annual rate of increase is in the order of 3 parts per million.