American seamen have three avenues of recovery against a shipowner in respect of injuries sustained on board a ship: maintenance and cure; the Jones Act; a claim of unseaworthiness.
Punitive damages are available for the first of these, but not the second. The position as regards unseaworthiness was, until recently, unclear with a Circuit split on the issue. This has now been resolved by the Supreme Court’s decision in Dutra Group v Batterton ,588- U.S.. ____ bluee Glass STD bluee Glass STD Equine Couture Beatta All Purpose Saddle PadM Desti Flakes Pet Felt Cat Litter Cat Bed Cute Princess Four Seasons Universal Closed Villa Removable and Washable (Size M)(2019) , to the effect that punitive damages are not recoverable. The overwhelming historical evidence was against such damages being available in an action for unseaworthiness. A novel remedy could not be sanctioned unless it is required to maintain uniformity with Congress’s clearly expressed policies, Marina 75 Air Pump by MarinaJiedoasi Foldable Hollow Pet Cooling Mat Dog Cooler Mat Ventilated Aluminum Alloy Material Pet Bedparticularly those in the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (Jones Act), under which only compensatory damages were recoverable.1 as picture 1 as picture Travel Pet Dog Carrier Puppy Cat Carrying Outdoor Bags For Small Dogs Shoulder Bag Soft Pets Dog Kennel Pet Products 3 colors 01 As PictureAPI Pond ACCU-Clear Pond Water Clarifier 64-Ounce Bottle.
To allow punitive damages on unseaworthiness claims would create bizarre disparities in the law. First, a mariner could make a claim for punitive damages if he was injured onboard a ship, but his estate would lose the right to seek punitivedamages in a wrongful death action if he died from his injuries. LITING Kennel Large Dog Puppies Dog Mat Growth Dog Washable Four Seasons Dog Bed Sofa Pet NestDIYthinker Black Chemical Molecular Structure Illustration Anti-Slip Floor Pet Mat Square Home Kitchen Door 80Cm GiftSecond, because unseaworthiness claims run against the owner of the vessel, the owner could be liable for punitive damages while the ship’s master or operator—who could be more culpable—would not be liable for such damages under the Jones Act. 30-Inch Ppinklect Sure Ex Pen, 30-Inch, BlackKYCD Summer Cat Litter, Removable And Washable, Seasonal Felt Cylinder Closed, English Short Cat Litter, Cat Mat, Cat Supplies, Pet SuppliesThird, allowing punitive damages would place American shippers at a significant competitive disadvantage and discourage foreign-owned vessels from employing American seamen