American seamen have three avenues of recovery against a shipowner in respect of injuries sustained on board a ship: maintenance and cure; the Jones Act; a claim of unseaworthiness.
Punitive damages are available for the first of these, but not the second. The position as regards unseaworthiness was, until recently, unclear with a Circuit split on the issue. This has now been resolved by the Supreme Court’s decision in Dutra Group v Batterton ,588- U.S.. ____ Kness Pro-Ketch Multiple Catch Mousetrap with Clear-View Lid Model 104-0-004Ferplast AMIGO Cord Retractable Dog Lead, 5m,, Large, 16 x 3.8 x 15cm, , Large, Black(2019) , to the effect that punitive damages are not recoverable. The overwhelming historical evidence was against such damages being available in an action for unseaworthiness. A novel remedy could not be sanctioned unless it is required to maintain uniformity with Congress’s clearly expressed policies, bluee Dog Toilet Urinal Large Toilet Large Dogs Toilet Bedpan Male Dog Pet Supplies ( color bluee )Fzone Aquarium CO2 Regulator Big Dual Gauge Display with Bubble Counter and Check Valve w Solenoid 110V Fits Standard US Tanks Easy to Adjust CO2 Level Comes w Toolsparticularly those in the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (Jones Act), under which only compensatory damages were recoverable.Buckle-Down Seatbelt Buckle Dog Collar Elmer FUDD w Poses Browns 1 Wide Fits 11-17 Neck Mediumgold Paw Stretch Fleece Dog Coat Garnet Size 14 by gold Paw.
To allow punitive damages on unseaworthiness claims would create bizarre disparities in the law. First, a mariner could make a claim for punitive damages if he was injured onboard a ship, but his estate would lose the right to seek punitivedamages in a wrongful death action if he died from his injuries. Big Dog Antler Chews Whitetail Deer Antler Dog Chew, Medium, 8 Inches to 13 Inches Long, Natural, Healthy Long-Lasting Treat. for Medium to Large Size Dogs and Puppies Happy Dog Guarantee Black Dog Seat Cover, Car Seat Cover for Pets,Pet Seat Cover, Waterproof Scratch Proof Nonslip Durable Soft Pet Back Seat Covers for Cars Trucks and SUVs AUTOFAN, BlackSecond, because unseaworthiness claims run against the owner of the vessel, the owner could be liable for punitive damages while the ship’s master or operator—who could be more culpable—would not be liable for such damages under the Jones Act. Diamond Natural Canned Cat Food Variety Pack 12 Cans 3 Flavors 1 Can Topper 2 Cat ToysGAOLIQIN Professional Electronic Indoor Insect Killer, Portable Bug Zapper, Ultra-quiet, No Radiation, Environmental Predection Household Mosquito Killer Lamp, Hang Horizontal Placement, blueeThird, allowing punitive damages would place American shippers at a significant competitive disadvantage and discourage foreign-owned vessels from employing American seamen