American seamen have three avenues of recovery against a shipowner in respect of injuries sustained on board a ship: maintenance and cure; the Jones Act; a claim of unseaworthiness.
Punitive damages are available for the first of these, but not the second. The position as regards unseaworthiness was, until recently, unclear with a Circuit split on the issue. This has now been resolved by the Supreme Court’s decision in Dutra Group v Batterton ,588- U.S.. ____ 10 to 13Inch Puppy Bumpers Rainbow Paw Puppy Bumper,10 to 13Inch7 Astronaut Pet Cat Dog Puppy Carrier Travel Bag Space Capsule Backpack Breathable(2019) , to the effect that punitive damages are not recoverable. The overwhelming historical evidence was against such damages being available in an action for unseaworthiness. A novel remedy could not be sanctioned unless it is required to maintain uniformity with Congress’s clearly expressed policies, Cat Window Perches with a hammock, suction cupmounted Cat nest, singlelayer doublelayer Ultimate cat scratcher Lounge (color Green, Style Double layer)15L Portable Collapsible Basin wash Basin Travel Large washbasin wash Foot Bucket Outdoor Foam Bag Travel tubparticularly those in the Merchant Marine Act of 1920 (Jones Act), under which only compensatory damages were recoverable.C Pet Carrier Backpack AntiEscape Cat Carrier Backpack Dog Travel Carriers Space Capsule Bubble Backpack Carriers for Small DogsA6 Large 55X50X30CMZcx Cartoon Threedimensional Cotton Padded Kennel Lambskin Thick Pet Nest Cat Litter (color A2, Size Large 55X50X30CM).
To allow punitive damages on unseaworthiness claims would create bizarre disparities in the law. First, a mariner could make a claim for punitive damages if he was injured onboard a ship, but his estate would lose the right to seek punitivedamages in a wrongful death action if he died from his injuries. All Star Dogs Northern Arizona Lumberjacks Polar Fleece Hooded Dog Jacket, XSmall60×45×15cm ZXL Orthopedic Pet Bed, for Medium Small Dog, Removable and Washable, Durable Dog Bed, Red (Size 60×45×15cm)Second, because unseaworthiness claims run against the owner of the vessel, the owner could be liable for punitive damages while the ship’s master or operator—who could be more culpable—would not be liable for such damages under the Jones Act. Carrier Dog Cat Space Capsule Shaped Pet Travel Carrying Breathable Shoulder Backpack Outside Travel Portable Bag PetCat Tunnel Toy, Collapsible, Kitten Indoor Toys(Yellow)Third, allowing punitive damages would place American shippers at a significant competitive disadvantage and discourage foreign-owned vessels from employing American seamen